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Ацифилла и азорелла

Страница : 1
В прежние годы, когда овцеводы прокладывали первые тропы в горах Новой Зеландии, им преградили путь заросли ацифиллы золотистой. Ацифилла хоть и относится к зонтичным, но внешне больше похожа на гигантскую осоку.
Ее листья не имеют обычной для зонтичных кружевной, папоротниковой или «морковной» формы. Они полуметровые, узкие и острые, как штыки.
Такие жесткие, что даже в сильный шторм остаются неподвижными. У каждого растения целый сноп таких листьев, собранных розеткой.
Из середины розетки поднимается могучий двухметровый стебель. Он тоже вооружен штыками, правда, меньшего размера, но не менее крепкими и острыми, как иглы. Соцветие тоже мало похоже на зонтичное. Это не плоский зонтик, как у моркови или тмина, а почти колос, вытянутый во всю длину стебля.
Пастух, который захочет объехать свою отару на лошади рысью, не сможет этого сделать из боязни порезаться об острые лезвия листьев. Несомненно, что такую надежную защиту растение выработало против животных.
Однако некоторые из них все-таки ухитряются преодолевать так хорошо отлаженную оборону ацифиллы. И в первую очередь нелетающий попугай какапо. Его не раз заставали на месте преступления, когда он уплетал плоды, закусывая жесткими стеблями и даже бритвенно-острыми листьями.
С приходом европейцев число животных-ацифиллоедов увеличилось. Как всегда, привезли кроликов. Размножившись в горах Новой Зеландии, кролики быстро познакомились с ацифиллой. После этого кривые роста населения кроликов и ацифиллы пошли в разные стороны.
Чем быстрее росло кроличье население, тем заметнее падала численность зонтичного растения. Видимо, ацифилла своим вкусом напомнила им любимую морковку (семейство-то одно!). А режущие листья они наловчились избегать не хуже, чем местный попугай какапо.
Овцы тоже приняли участие в изгнании гигантского зонтичного с Новозеландских островов. Выедая на субальпийских лугах вкусный злак овсяницу, они не брезгуют и ацифиллой. И вот уже всадник-овцевод свободно скачет по горным лугам, загоняя отару. И редко теперь блеснет среди кустов блестящий штык ацифиллы.
Совершенно особенные зонтичные встречаются в южном полушарии: в Андах, в Патагонии, на Огненной Земле и по островам Антарктики. Растут они в виде больших «валунов», высотою до полуметра и около метра в поперечнике.
Разработчик:Территория SlavSSoft