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Ацифилла и азорелла

Страница : 2
Это азорелла, на вид нежная подушка, а на самом деле настолько твердая, что по ней можно не только ходить, но и на лошади ездить. Говорят, что даже молоток от нее отскакивает. Несмотря на суровый климат, азорелла – вечнозеленое растение (для зонтичных – редкость!).
Доживает до ста лет, а возможно, и больше. Множество желтых цветочков в простых зонтиках расцветает на поверхности зеленых подушек. Эти зонтики уже не возвышаются, как обычно, над растением, а растут вровень с поверхностью подушки. Потом их перерастают новые побеги.
С годами подушки увеличиваются медленно. Слишком мало тепла. В Андах, несмотря на тропические широты, их постоянно засыпает снежная крупа. В деревянистом стебле, который спрятан под подушкой, накапливается большой запас смолы. Стебли горят жарко, как уголь. Это знали еще индейцы и пользовались в горах даровым топливом.
Но индейцев было мало, и заросли сильно не страдали. Теперь стали заготавливать азореллу промышленным способом. И поскольку подушки так крепки, что их, как говорят, и пистолетная пуля не пробивает, взрывают динамитом.
Надолго ли хватит зарослей зонтичных, если растут подушки со скоростью нескольких миллиметров в год? Уже большие пространства горной пустыни – «пуны» в Андах превратились в безжизненные пустоши.
Конечно, не все зонтичные в наше время обречены на вымирание. Есть и такие, которые наступают, захватывая новые площади, и с трудом их отдают. Это в первую очередь дикая морковка. Ее излюбленные места – крутые скалы, обрывающиеся в Средиземное море или в Атлантический океан.
Сколько разных предположений вызывал этот цветок! Одни говорили, что он похож на жука и служит для привлечения других жуков-опылителей, как у живокости. Другие уверяли, что «жуки» отпугивают коз, которые уничтожили бы всю дикую морковку, не будь у нее черных цветков.
Третьи считали, что черный цветок испускает запах падали, привлекающий насекомых-опылителей. Трудно сказать, где тут фантастика и где реальность. Однако козы действительно обходят дикую морковь стороной, а насекомые опыляют так хорошо, что семян образуется множество.
В одно прекрасное время они попали в Северную Америку, и дикая морковка начала свое победное шествие по западному полушарию с такой энергией, что стала считаться одним из самых зловредных сорняков. Многие заброшенные поля, захваченные еще в 20-х годах нашего века, удерживает она до сих пор.
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