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27 Notice: Undefined variable: t_ar in /var/www/slavs/data/www/world-plants.net/print/index.php on line 27 Notice: Undefined variable: a_ar in /var/www/slavs/data/www/world-plants.net/print/index.php on line 27 Notice: Undefined variable: u_ar in /var/www/slavs/data/www/world-plants.net/print/index.php on line 27 Женьшень, страница 1 – версия для печати

Женьшень

Страница : 1
В древесном семействе аралиевых женьшень как пасынок. Самый невзрачный. Пучок листьев розеткой и зонтик бледных желто-зеленых цветков.
В полумраке кедрового леса его и заметить трудно. Корневщики – сборщики женьшеня иной раз неделями ищут, пока найдут. Редок, конечно, женьшень. Но и малозаметен тоже.
Но женьшень не трава. Подземное корневище – это видоизмененный ствол дерева. И ветвится ствол так же редко, как и настоящие стволы тропических аралиевых.
И лет ему нередко больше ста – чем не дерево? В 1905 году, когда проводили дорогу на Сучан на Дальнем Востоке, нашли корень весом в полтора фунта. Ему было 200 лет. Чем старше женьшень, тем больше листьев. Трехлистному – лет 15 или 20, пятилистному – вдвое больше. Найти шестилистный – большая удача.
Корневщики добывают «корень жизни» с превеликой осторожностью. Копают костяной палочкой. Поцарапаешь – загниет, а кому нужен гнилой корень? И перевозят не так, как другие растения. Заворачивают в берестяной конверт. Кладут мох, сыплют горсть лесной земли. Боятся подсушить, боятся намочить. Малейшая неосторожность, и «корень жизни» станет обычной деревяшкой.
Еще более чувствителен женьшень, когда живой. Растет в лесах из корейского кедра, где много липы и мало березы. Раньше считали, что незримые узы связывают женьшень с липой и соседства березы он не выносит. Теперь знают, что это не всегда так.
Зато связь с кедром всем известна. Не потому, что уж так нужны они друг другу. Просто у обоих много общих требований к климату и почве. И все-таки не во всех кедровых лесах растет «корень жизни». Ему нужно, чтобы лес был не светлый, но и не темный. Чтобы ветерок лишний раз не дунул, это тоже важно. По этой причине драгоценное растение избегает продуваемых долин.
Лучше для него северные склоны сопок, каменистые ущелья, заросли папоротника. Любит, чтобы тепло было, но не жарко и не холодно. Чтобы зверь бегущий не наступил… Условий множество, их можно перечислять до бесконечности.
Но если даже соблюдены все условия, если вокруг защитная стена леса, если нет ветра, если температура почти не меняется, женьшень может вдруг взять и «задремать». Это значит, что новая почка весной не даст новых листьев и новых цветков. Дремлющий корень останется живым, но будет спать год, два, пять, десять лет. Может, и сорок, и даже шестьдесят!
А был еще такой случай. Вывалило ветром крупный кедр. Упал он как раз на то место, где рос женьшень. То ли придавил его, то ли просто затемнил, но бедняга перестал давать листья и задремал. Спал долго, пока кедровый ствол не сгнил.
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