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Кислички

Страница : 1
В один из праздников ирландцы посылают своим друзьям и знакомым, тоскующим на чужбине, шемрок – тройчатый листочек кислички как память о далекой родине.
Это старая традиция. Лист кислички – национальная эмблема Ирландии. Эта трава знакома каждому ирландцу с детства. Она всюду растет в тенистых лесах.
Кисличка ростом со спичечную коробку. Стебля нет. Идешь по лесу – одни листья. Пластинка листа тонюсенькая, как бумга.
Трудно найти более нежное создание. Уж на что сыро, влажно в тенистом ельнике, а кисличка и тут на ночь складывает листочки, чтобы не испарять лишнего. Если случайно пробьется сквозь ветки солнечный луч, кисличка сложит листья и днем.
Несмотря на такую чувствительность, нежнейшая травка расселилась не только по Ирландии, не только по Британским островам, но по всему Евразиатскому континенту до самого Байкала и еще дальше. В этом ей помогли два обстоятельства: привычка к темноте и кислый сок листьев, к тому же еще и ядовитый.
В соке есть соли щавелевой кислоты. Недаром англичане зовут обыкновенную кисличку «лесным щавелем». Пожевать листочек приятно, но есть опасно. Дикие животные это знают. Никто из них не ест листья кислички. Даже улитки. Домашний скот, если наглотается, то исход бывает печальный.
Темнота спасает кисличку от конкурентов – светолюбивых трав. Зато, если лес вырубают, кисличка гибнет. И не столько от натиска трав, сколько от ярких лучей солнца. Судьба «лесного щавеля» связана с темным лесом. Не станет его, исчезнет и кисличка.
За Байкалом, где климат суше и мрачная тайга уступает место светлым, сухим лиственничникам, редким и солнечным, кисличка исчезает. Цветки у кислички белые. Такие лучше видны во мраке. Насекомые находят их быстро.
Нектара в цветках мало. Привлекает пыльца. Едят пыльцу охотно. Возятся в цветках долго, по минуте-полторы. В очень густом и тенистом лесу насекомые редки. Там цветки у кислички вырастают другие, нераскрывающиеся. Опыляются сами собой. Плодики дают такие же: круглые, зеленые. Стоит чуть задеть, взрываются, как маленькие гранаты, далеко расшвыривая семена.
У семян кислички есть приспособление для дальнейших путешествий, которое редко встречается в растительном мире. Семена в сухом воздухе сухие, в сыром становятся липкими. Упадет семечко на опавший лист бука или березы, намокнет и приклеится к нему.
Разработчик:Территория SlavSSoft