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27 Notice: Undefined variable: a_ar in /var/www/slavs/data/www/world-plants.net/print/index.php on line 27 Notice: Undefined variable: u_ar in /var/www/slavs/data/www/world-plants.net/print/index.php on line 27 С млечным соком и без, страница 4 – версия для печати

С млечным соком и без

Страница : 4
Прогрызают длинные ходы внутри ветвей. Держат там тлей, как стада слепого скота. Те высасывают из веточек сладкий сок и выделяют сахаристый секрет, который тут же пожирают их хозяева.
Дерево, в свою очередь, подкармливает постояльцев. На нижней стороне молодых листьев (чтобы не смыл дождь!) образуются крошечные белые шарики – пищевые тельца.
Ими питаются муравьи-квартиранты. Если неосторожно срезать ветку макаранги, муравьи выскакивают из своих темных убежищ и набрасываются на нарушителя.
Иногда объясняют связь муравьев с деревом именно такой защитой. Но это еще окончательно не доказано. По крайней мере, встречаются деревья макаранги вполне здоровые, неповрежденные, в которых нет муравьев.
Есть у макаранги и еще одно защитное приспособление – колючки на стволе. Особенно много колючек на молодых стволиках. И это понятно: с молодого деревца животные охотнее станут сдирать кору, чем со старого. Колючки у макаранги особенные.
Пока надо защищаться от врагов, они остаются колючками. Зато чем старше дерево, тем кора толще и опасность обгрызания меньше. Да и дерево становится выше, его может повалить ветер.
И тут с колючками неожиданно происходят странные превращения. Чешский ботаник Я. Еник, работавший в лесах Африки, недавно заметил, что колючки в нижней части ствола трогаются в рост, вытягиваются, потом описывают дугу, устремляются к земле и превращаются в ходульные корни-подпорки. Они поддерживают дерево, чтобы его не повалило ветром.
Разработчик:Территория SlavSSoft