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Канука и манука

Страница : 1
В семействе миртовых, где царствуют эвкалипты и рождественские деревья, есть два небольших деревца. В нашу эпоху они совершенно неожиданно получили огромную известность. Это канука и манука. Оба относятся к роду лептоспермум.
У мануки очень мелкие листочки длиной всего в полсантиметра. Они похожи на иголки можжевельника.
А сам манука напоминает большой веник, отчего и назван ботаниками лептоспермумом веничным. Канука немногим отличается от собрата и напоминает вереск своими листочками, отчего именуется вересковым.
Высота у обоих небольшая, метров пять. Манука где только не встречается: в обычном лесу и на болоте, на сухих скалах и в прибрежных песках, выше границы леса в горах и на вулканических пемзах. Он неразборчив к месту жительства и быстро заселяет места, свободные от других растений.
В этом ему помогает несколько полезных качеств. Мелкие листочки испаряют немного влаги, следовательно, можно жить на сухом месте. Манука дает множество семян. Семена запакованы в прочные деревянистые коробочки (как у эвкалиптов), а это надежная защита от лесных пожаров.
После пожара семян под деревцами насеивается столько, что кажется, будто опилки рассыпали. Правда, под собственной тенью манука не растет, и семена здесь вроде бы бесполезны. Но они такие мелкие, что ветер легко поднимает их с земли и уносит вместе с пылью в дальние края.
Аэросев дает свои результаты: заросли мануки теперь тянутся по лесным гарям и вырубкам на многие мили. И чем больше люди нарушают естественный покров земли, тем шире разрастаются манука и его собрат канука.
Есть, конечно, в Новой Зеландии и другие растения, которые захватывают лесные гари. Папоротник орляк, наш лесной житель, в этом соперничает с манукой. Но когда пожары следуют один за другим, постоянно, орляк истощается и погибает, манука же воцаряется прочно и надолго.
Неразборчивость не проходит для мануки бесследно. Только на хорошей почве и при постоянных дождях он бывает деревцем 10-метровой высоты. Нужно, чтобы и ветра сильного не было. Тогда манука очень красив. Сероватая кора отслаивается от ствола и свисает нежной бахромой.
Белые цветки, которые в отличие от эвкалипта несут вполне развитые лепестки, в огромных массах покрывают крону. Делают ее похожей на яблоню. Если почва победнее и покислее, манука уже не дерево, а кустарник с прямостоячими ветвями.
В горах на холодных почвах и на ветру манука даже и не кустарник, а так, стелется по земле, кое-где укореняясь. От земли высоко не поднимается, но зацветает, даже когда ростом не выше брусники. И своим видом напоминает уже не дерево, а газонную траву.
Разработчик:Территория SlavSSoft