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Разрушители памятников

Страница : 1
Темно-зеленые коврики каперсов с их лоснящимися, как бы жирными, толстыми листьями еще издали виднеются на блеклом фоне выгоревших трав в фисташковых редколесьях Средней Азии и на Кавказе. Коврики больше метра длиной. Друг от друга далеко. Появляясь на кладбищах на могильных плитах, поразительно напоминают венки.
Особенно во время цветения, когда в них словно вплетены крупные, белые, в ладонь величиной цветки на длинных цветоножках. Эти растения-венки, кажется, не испытывают никаких неудобств в летнюю жару, которая губит все остальные местные, тоже приспособленные к пустыне травы.
Пользуясь таким особым положением в природе, каперсы в Средней Азии захватили места, где их присутствие совершенно излишне. Они оккупировали самые древние и самые ценные памятники старины. Каперсы везде: на крышах и куполах дворцов, на минаретах мечетей, на крышах глинобитных хибарок.
Их белые цветки и четырехсантиметровые ягоды с красной мякотью свешиваются с глиняных дувалов и колонн современных театров. Цветки точно нарочно открываются вечером к началу представления и закрываются утром. Каперсы способны жить не только на карнизах зданий, но и на вертикальной поверхности стен. На стенах медресе Шердар в Самарканде в 1971 году обнаружили 203 куста.
Поразительная способность карабкаться по вертикальной стене объясняется просто. Плети этого растения вооружены по-кошачьи крючковидными когтями – видоизмененными прилистниками. Чтобы добыть влагу, протягивают вниз корни так далеко, как нужно. На крыше главной мечети медресе Улуг-Бека в Самарканде растет каперс, корни которого длиной 17 метров уходят в зал мечети.
Там они углубляются в почву и как далеко простираются в ней — неизвестно. В Сахаре корни разрушителя памятников добывают воду с глубины 20 метров. У нас в Средней Азии примерно так же. Если же воду добыть невозможно, каперсы растут на сухой алебастровой штукатурке. И это несмотря на то, что кирпичи крыш нагреваются до 80 градусов.
Корни постепенно разрушают памятники. Пробовали бороться с помощью гербицидов. Не помогло. Погибает надземная часть, но корни сохраняются, и куст восстанавливается. Сейчас пытаются замешивать с гербицидами алебастр. Кажется, эксперимент оказался удачным.
Но, в общем, разрушительная деятельность каперсов не столь уж велика. Созидательная намного важнее. Особенно ее чувствуют железнодорожники. Если на полотне дороги поселился каперс, можно дать гарантию, что балласт, на котором лежат шпалы, будет прочно и надежно скреплен его длинными плетями. К тому же он еще и украшает и мед дает. А как хорошо укрепляет овраги!
Разработчик:Территория SlavSSoft